RBI Credit Policy
RBI uses below mention tools like Repo Rate, Reverse Repo rate, Cash Reserve Ratio, Statutory Liquidity Ratio to control liquidity in the banking system.
What is Bank rate?
Bank Rate is the rate at which RBI (Reserve Bank Of India ) allows finance (lend) to commercial banks. Bank Rate is a tool, which RBI uses for short-term purposes. Any upward revision in Bank Rate by RBI is an indication that banks should also increase deposit rates as well as Base Rate / Benchmark Prime Lending Rate. Thus any revision in the Bank rate indicates that it is likely that interest rates on your deposits are likely to either go up or go down, & it can also indicate an increase or decrease in your EMI for the loan.
What is the meaning of CRR
CRR means Cash Reserve Ratio. Indian Banks are required to hold a certain proportion of their deposits in the form of cash. However, actually Banks donít hold these as cash with themselves, but deposit such case with RBI currency chests, which is considered as equivalent to holding cash with RBI. This minimum ratio (that is the part of the total deposits to be held as cash) is stipulated by the RBI and is known as the CRR or Cash Reserve Ratio. Thus, When a bankís deposits increase by Rs100, and if the cash reserve ratio is 6%, the banks will have to hold additional Rs 6 with RBI and Bank will be able to use only Rs 94 for investments and lending & credit purpose. Therefore, higher the ratio (i.e. CRR), the lower is the amount that banks will be able to use for lending and investment. This power of RBI to reduce the lendable amount by increasing the CRR, makes it an instrument in the hands of a central bank through which it can control the amount that banks lend. Thus, it is a tool used by RBI to control liquidity in the banking system.
What is SLR?
SLR means (Statutory Liquidity Ratio) Every bank has to maintain at the close of business every day, a minimum proportion of their Net Demand and Time Liabilities as liquid assets in the form of cash, gold and un-encumbered approved securities. The ratio of liquid assets to demand and time liabilities is known as SLR . RBI is empowered to increase this ratio up to 40%. An increase in SLR also restrict the bankís leverage position to pump more money into the economy.
What are Repo rate and Reverse Repo rate?
Repo (Repurchase) rate is the rate at which the RBI lends shot-term money to the banks against securities. When the repo rate increases borrowing from RBI becomes more expensive. Therefore, we can say that in case, RBI wants to make it more expensive for the banks to borrow money, it increases the repo rate; similarly, if it wants to make it cheaper for banks to borrow money, it reduces the repo rate
Reverse Repo rate is the rate at which banks park their short-term excess liquidity with the RBI. The banks use this tool when they feel that they are stuck with excess funds and are not able to invest anywhere for reasonable returns An increase in the reverse repo rate means that the RBI is ready to borrow money from the banks at a higher rate of interest. As a result, banks would prefer to keep more and more surplus funds with RBI
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